Pankhani yopera, mafunso ofunika kwambiri 20 ndi mayankho (1)

mw1420 (1)

 

1. Kodi akupera ndi chiyani?Yesani kutchula mitundu ingapo ya akupera.

Yankho: Kugaya ndi njira yopangira yomwe imachotsa chowonjezera chowonjezera pamtunda wa workpiece ndi kudula kwa chida cha abrasive, kotero kuti khalidwe lapamwamba la workpiece likukwaniritsa zofunikira zomwe zinakonzedweratu.Mafomu akupera wamba nthawi zambiri amaphatikizapo: kugaya cylindrical, kugaya mkati, kugaya mopanda pakati, kugaya ulusi, kugaya malo athyathyathya a zida zogwirira ntchito, ndikupera popanga malo.
2. Kodi chida cha abrasive ndi chiyani?Kodi gudumu lopera ndi lotani?Kodi ndi zinthu ziti zomwe zimatsimikizira momwe imagwirira ntchito?

Yankho: Zida zonse zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pogaya, kugaya ndi kupukuta zimatchulidwa pamodzi kuti zida zowonongeka, zomwe zambiri zimapangidwa ndi abrasives ndi binders.
Mawilo opera amapangidwa ndi njere zowononga, zomangira ndi pores (nthawi zina popanda), ndipo ntchito yawo imatsimikiziridwa makamaka ndi zinthu monga abrasives, tinthu tating'onoting'ono, zomangira, kuuma ndi bungwe.
3. Mitundu ya abrasives ndi chiyani?Lembani ma abrasive angapo omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri.

Yankho: Abrasive imayang'anira mwachindunji ntchito yodula, ndipo iyenera kukhala ndi kuuma kwakukulu, kukana kutentha ndi kulimba kwina, ndipo iyenera kupanga m'mphepete mwake ndi ngodya zikathyoka.Pakalipano, pali mitundu itatu ya ma abrasives omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga: mndandanda wa oxide, mndandanda wa carbide ndi mndandanda wa abrasive apamwamba kwambiri.Ma abrasives omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ndi white corundum, zirconium corundum, cubic boron carbide, diamondi yopanga, kiyubiki boron nitride, etc.
4. Ndi mitundu yanji ya magudumu opera?Kodi tanthauzo la kuvala gudumu lopera ndi chiyani?

Yankho: Kuvala kwa gudumu lopera kumaphatikizapo magawo awiri: kutayika kwa abrasive ndi kulephera kwa magudumu opera.Kutayika kwa njere za abrasive pamwamba pa gudumu lopera kungagawidwe m'njira zitatu zosiyana: passivation of abrasive njere, kuphwanya njere za abrasive, ndi kukhetsa njere za abrasive.Ndi kutalika kwa nthawi yogwira ntchito ya gudumu lopera, luso lake locheka limachepa pang'onopang'ono, ndipo pamapeto pake silingathe kugwedezeka bwino, ndipo kulondola kwachindunji ndi khalidwe lapamwamba silingatheke.Panthawi imeneyi, gudumu lopera limalephera.Pali mitundu itatu: kufota kwa malo ogwirira ntchito a gudumu lopera, kutsekeka kwa malo ogwirira ntchito a gudumu logaya, ndi kupotoza kozungulira kwa gudumu lopera.

 

Pamene gudumu lopera latha, pamafunika kuvalanso gudumu lopera.Kuvala ndi liwu lodziwika bwino la kuumba ndi kunola.Kujambula ndiko kupanga gudumu lopera kukhala ndi mawonekedwe a geometric ndi zofunikira zina zolondola;Kunola ndiko kuchotsa chomangira pakati pa njere za abrasive, kotero kuti njere za abrasive zimatuluka kuchokera ku chomangira mpaka kutalika kwina (pafupifupi 1/3 ya kukula kwa njere za abrasive), kupanga m'mphepete mwabwino komanso malo okwanira crumb. .Kupanga ndi kunola kwa mawilo opera wamba nthawi zambiri kumachitika limodzi;kupangika ndi kunola kwa mawilo opera kwambiri amalekanitsidwa.Choyamba ndikupeza geometry yabwino yogaya ndipo chomaliza ndikuwongolera kuthwa kwa mphero.
5. Ndi mitundu yanji ya mphesa yoyenda mu cylindrical ndi pamwamba pakupera?

Yankho: Pogaya bwalo lakunja ndi ndege, kusuntha kwakupera kumaphatikizapo mitundu inayi: kusuntha kwakukulu, kayendedwe ka radial feed, axial feed motion ndi workpiece kasinthasintha kapena mzere wozungulira.
6. Fotokozani mwachidule ndondomeko yopera ya tinthu tating'ono ta abrasive.

Yankho: Njira yogaya ya njere imodzi ya abrasive imagawidwa pafupifupi magawo atatu: kutsetsereka, kugoletsa ndi kudula.

 

(1) Malo otsetsereka: Panthawi yopera, makulidwe odulidwa amawonjezeka pang'onopang'ono kuchokera ku ziro.Mu siteji kutsetsereka, chifukwa chochepa kwambiri kudula makulidwe acg pamene abrasive kudula m'mphepete ndi workpiece kuyamba kukhudzana, pamene blunt bwalo utali wozungulira rn> acg pamwamba ngodya abrasive njere, abrasive njere kutsetsereka kokha pamwamba. za workpiece, ndikungotulutsa Elastic deformation, palibe tchipisi.

 

(2) scribing siteji: ndi kuwonjezeka kwa kulowerera kuya kwa abrasive particles, kuthamanga pakati pa abrasive particles ndi pamwamba pa workpiece pang'onopang'ono kumawonjezeka, ndipo pamwamba wosanjikiza komanso kusintha kuchokera mapindikidwe zotanuka kuti mapindikidwe pulasitiki.Panthawi imeneyi, kukangana kwa extrusion kumakhala koopsa, ndipo kutentha kwakukulu kumapangidwa.Chitsulo chikatenthedwa kufika pamalo ovuta, kupanikizika kwabwino kwa kutentha kumaposa mphamvu zokolola zakuthupi, ndipo m'mphepete mwake mumayamba kudula pamwamba pa zinthuzo.Kutsetsereka kumakankhira zinthu zakuthupi kutsogolo ndi mbali za njere za abrasive, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti njere zonyezimira zijambule mizere pamwamba pa chogwirira ntchito, ndi zotupa kumbali zonse ziwiri za grooves.Makhalidwe a siteji iyi ndi: kutuluka kwa pulasitiki ndi kuphulika kumachitika pamwamba pa zinthu, ndipo tchipisi sichingapangidwe chifukwa kudula makulidwe a particles abrasive sikufika pamtengo wofunikira wa mapangidwe a chip.

 

(3) Kudulira siteji: Pamene kuya kulowerera kumawonjezeka kukhala ofunika kwambiri, wosanjikiza odulidwa mwachionekere amazembera pamodzi kukameta ubweya pamwamba pa extrusion wa abrasive particles, kupanga tchipisi kutuluka pamodzi angatenge nkhope, amene amatchedwa kudula siteji.
7. Gwiritsani ntchito njira ya JCJaeger kuti muwerenge kutentha kwa malo opera panthawi yopera.

Yankho: Pogaya, kutalika kwa arc kumakhalanso kochepa chifukwa chakuya kwakung'ono kwa kudula.Chifukwa chake zitha kuwonedwa ngati gwero la kutentha lopangidwa ndi gulu lomwe likuyenda pamwamba pa thupi lopanda malire.Izi ndiye maziko a yankho la JCJaeger.(a) Gwero la kutentha kwa pamwamba pa mphero (b) Kugwirizanitsa dongosolo la gwero la kutentha pamwamba pakuyenda.

 

The grinding contact arc area AA¢B¢B ndi gwero la kutentha kwa lamba, ndipo kutentha kwake ndi qm;m'lifupi w ake amagwirizana ndi m'mimba mwake wa gudumu lopera ndi kuya kwake.Gwero la kutentha AA¢B¢B limatha kuonedwa ngati kaphatikizidwe ka magwero osawerengeka amtundu wa dxi, kutenga gwero linalake la kutentha la dxi kuti lifufuzidwe, kutentha kwake kwa gwero ndi qmBdxi, ndikuyenda motsatira njira ya X ndi liwiro la Vw.

 

8. Ndi mitundu yanji ya mphesa zoyaka ndi njira zawo zowongolera?

Yankho: Kutengera ndi mawonekedwe a zopsereza, pali kuyatsa kwachiwopsezo, kuyaka kwamawanga, ndi kuwotcha kwa mzere (kuyaka pamzere pamtunda wonse wa gawolo).Kutengera ndi kusintha kwa mawonekedwe a pamwamba, pali: kuyatsa, kuyatsa, ndi kuyatsa kwapang'onopang'ono.

 

Pogaya, chifukwa chachikulu chowotcha ndikuti kutentha kwa malo opera kumakhala kwakukulu.Pofuna kuchepetsa kutentha kwa malo opera, njira ziwiri zingatengedwe kuti muchepetse kutentha kwa mphesa ndikufulumizitsa kusamutsidwa kwa kutentha.

Njira zowongolera zomwe zimachitika nthawi zambiri ndi:

 

(1) Kusankhidwa koyenera kwa kuchuluka kwakupera;

(2) Sankhani bwino gudumu lopera;

(3) Kugwiritsa ntchito moyenera njira zoziziritsira

 

9. Kodi akupera mothamanga kwambiri ndi chiyani?Poyerekeza ndi kugaya wamba, kodi mphero yothamanga kwambiri ndi yotani?

Yankho: Kuthamanga kothamanga kwambiri ndi njira yopititsira patsogolo kugaya bwino komanso kusanja bwino powonjezera liwiro la liniya la gudumu lopera.Kusiyanitsa pakati pa izo ndi kugaya wamba kumakhala pa liwiro lalikulu logaya komanso kuchuluka kwa chakudya, ndipo tanthauzo la kugaya mwachangu likupita patsogolo ndi nthawi.Asanafike zaka za m'ma 1960, pamene liwiro lopera linali 50m / s, linkatchedwa kuti kugaya mofulumira.M'ma 1990, pazipita akupera liwiro anafika 500m/s.Mu ntchito zothandiza, liwiro akupera pamwamba 100m/s amatchedwa mkulu-liwiro akupera.

 

Poyerekeza ndi kugaya wamba, kugaya kothamanga kwambiri kuli ndi izi:

 

(1) Pansi pa zomwe magawo ena onse amasungidwa nthawi zonse, kungowonjezera liwiro la gudumu logaya kudzatsogolera kuchepetsedwa kwa makulidwe odulidwa ndi kuchepetsedwa kofananira kwa mphamvu yodulira yomwe ikugwira ntchito pamtundu uliwonse wa abrasive.

 

(2) Ngati liwiro workpiece chiwonjezeke molingana ndi akupera gudumu liwiro, kudula makulidwe akhoza kukhala osasintha.Pachifukwa ichi, mphamvu yodula yomwe ikugwira ntchito pa njere iliyonse ya abrasive ndi mphamvu yopera yotsatiridwayo sisintha.Ubwino waukulu wa izi ndikuti kuchuluka kwa zinthu zochotsa kumawonjezeka molingana ndi mphamvu yopera yofanana.

 

10. Fotokozani mwachidule zofunikira za mphesa zothamanga kwambiri pogaya mawilo ndi zida zamakina.

Yankho: Mawilo othamanga kwambiri ayenera kukwaniritsa zofunikira izi:

 

(1) Mphamvu yamakina ya gudumu logaya iyenera kupirira mphamvu yodulira panthawi yopera kwambiri;

 

(2) Chitetezo ndi kudalirika panthawi yopera mofulumira;

 

(3) maonekedwe akuthwa;

 

(4) Womangirayo ayenera kukhala ndi kukana kwamphamvu kuti achepetse kuvala kwa gudumu lopera.

 

Zofunikira pakukupera kothamanga kwambiri pazida zamakina:

 

(1) Spindle yothamanga kwambiri ndi ma bere ake: Zotengera zopota zothamanga kwambiri nthawi zambiri zimagwiritsa ntchito mayendedwe amipira.Pofuna kuchepetsa kutentha kwa spindle ndi kuonjezera liwiro lalikulu la spindle, zambiri za mbadwo watsopano wazitsulo zamagetsi zothamanga kwambiri zimapaka mafuta ndi gasi.

 

(2) Kuwonjezera pa ntchito za grinders wamba, ogaya othamanga kwambiri amafunikanso kukwaniritsa zofunikira izi: kulondola kwamphamvu kwambiri, kusungunuka kwakukulu, kukana kugwedezeka kwakukulu ndi kukhazikika kwa kutentha;kwambiri makina ndi odalirika akupera ndondomeko.

 

(3) Liŵiro la gudumu lopera likawonjeza, mphamvu yake ya kinetic imawonjezekanso.Ngati gudumu lopera litasweka, mwachiwonekere lidzavulaza kwambiri anthu ndi zida kuposa kugaya wamba.Pachifukwa ichi, kuwonjezera pa kupititsa patsogolo mphamvu ya gudumu lopukuta lokha, lapadera The wheel guard for high-speed akupera ndi muyeso wofunikira kuti atsimikizire chitetezo.


Nthawi yotumiza: Jul-23-2022